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Portland Timbers

A big part of training camp is fitness work. 'It's continuous, right through the first game,' coach and General Manager Gavin Wilkinson says.

The big test the Timbers use measures VO2 max, the maximum amount of oxygen players can take in and use.

'We do timed running 22 yards back and forth for as long as they can, at various speeds,' Wilkinson says. 'This gives us an indication of whether their fitness is improving or is stagnant. The players do not enjoy it.'

• Some former Timbers in the league: Josh Saunders, Edwin Miranda and Noah Delgado, Puerto Rico; Dan Antoniuk, Atlanta; Aaran Lines, Rochester; Ben Somoza, Seattle; and Jeff Clarke, Vancouver.